The importance of infectious diseases as a separate specialty cannot be overemphasized in today’s era of emerging infections such as COVID-19. An infectious disease physician attempts to establish the microbial cause of a particular problem whether it is a bacteria/ virus/protozoa/fungus/ parasite. He/ she then proposes the optimal treatment for that particular pathogen. Consultation with an ID physician is particularly needed for difficult to treat and antibiotic-resistant infections. Several studies have shown better outcomes when ID physicians were involved in the care of patients with serious infections as compared to those without ID input. Consultant with ID physicians is also associated with lower drug costs and adverse effects. Apart from diagnosis and treatment, another important role of the ID physician is to prevent infections using strategies such as vaccination, antibiotic prophylaxis and infection control.